Semantic Markup

In each XML file, we have encoded various categories of items that pertain to the content or meaning of the text. These include dates and the names of people, institutions, places, and events, as well as the titles of written works. All the items discussed in this section are highlighted when viewing a document in the Semantic Markup view. 

For the items in the collection Selections from Manuscript of The Florida Negro, we have only conducted semantic markup on aspects of the text that we understand to be possible points of connection to Muse's notes and narratives.


Our markup of dates follows standard TEI-XML usage, employing

<date when="YYYY-MM-DD"> 

to enclose a date, however it is articulated. 

We handle a standard situation as follows:

<date when="1936-04-01">April 1, 1936</date>.

When we have only a year, or only year and month, we use the following, respectively: 

<date when="1936">1936</date>
<date when="1936-04">April 1936</date>

Because TEI-XML does not accept a date without a year, when we have only month and day, we use 9999 as a placeholder year.

We mark up indirect references to dates, such as in

<date when="1970">the next year</date>

when the date referenced can be determined.


We have used <name> to mark up the names of all people; groups of people; companies, organizations, and similar entities; and events. We use use the type attribute to distinguish these categories and, in some cases, employ subtype to provide a further level of differentiation. We have opted to approach names this way, instead of using the separate elements <persName>, <placeName>, <orgName>, and <event>, so that all names are grouped together, and because we want to have the flexibility to add new types of names without complicating the paradigm.

Individual people

We use 
<name type="person">

to mark up the proper name of a person, as in:

<name type="person">William M. Raines/name>

This can also be used to mark common nouns or phrases that refer to a specific, identifiable person, as in:

...the <name type="person">superintendent</name> 
of the local public school system...

where superintendent refers, for instance, to a specific person that can be identified.  

We also use <name> to mark up pronouns (he, etc.) when they refer to specific, identifiable people.


<name type="place"></name> 

encloses the proper names of places of any type. This includes buildings, streets, cities, states (and other political divisions), as well as topographical features like rivers, lakes, etc. for example:

<name type="place">Jacksonville</name>

This can also be used to mark common nouns or phrases that refer to specific, identifiable places, as in:

the level of toxicity in the <name type="place">river</name> has increased...

where river refers, for instance, to the St. John's. As discussed above, it may often make sense to do so only when the actual antecedent hasn't been mentioned recently, or at all.

We use the subtype attribute to provide a more specific category for a place.

<name type="place" subtype="river">St. John's River</name>
<name type="place" subtype="city">Jacksonville</name>
<name type="place" subtype="county">Camden County</name>
<name type="place" subtype="state">Georgia</name>
<name type="place" subtype="neighborhood">LaVilla</name>
<name type="place" subtype="street">West Ashley Street</name>
<name type="place" subtype="cemetery">Old City Cemetery</name>
<name type="place" subtype="creek">Hogan Creek</name>

When city and state appear together, we mark the combination as subtype="city":

<name type="place" subtype="city">Jacksonville, Florida</name>

We treat addresses as places,

<name type="place" subtype="address">123 Main Street</name> 

and consider references to street corners to be addresses:

<name type="place" subtype="address">Ashley at corner Broad Street</name>

For places that can be located on a map today, we include latitude and longitude as follows:

<name type="place" type="building">The Clara White Mission<location><geo>30.332632 -81.664020</geo></location></name>

When place names appear as part of other proper names, such as those of educational institutions, we do not mark them separately:

<name type="institution" subtype="educational">Florida A&M College</name>

Organizations, companies, and similar entities

For all organizations, companies or other groupings of people, we use

<name type="organization">

with a value for subtype that provides further description:

<name type="institution" subtype="company">
<name type="institution" subtype="non-profit">
<name type="institution" subtype="governmental">
<name type="institution" subtype="educational">
<name type="institution" subtype="religious">
<name type="institution" subtype="family">

<name type="institution" subtype="social">

When, by context, one of these terms may refer to a building and an organization simultaneously, we designate it as both, as in<

<name type="place" subtype="building"><name type="institution" subtype="educational">LaVilla Park School</name></name>


<name type="place" subtype="building"><name type="institution" subtype="religious">Christian Methodist Episcopal Church</name></name>


<name type="event"></name>

can be used to indicate the name of an organized event, as in:

<name type="event">The World's Fair</name>


We also mark up the titles of written works, a kind of tagging that perhaps is regarded more as descriptive than semantic, but which involves the isolation of labels that reference specific entities, and thus is not unlike marking up names of people, places, etc.

<title level="m"></title>

encloses the title of a monographic ("m") work (a book, primarily, but also a painting, poem, film or anything that is an independent entity). Titles marked us as level="m" will appear in italics in the interface.

<title level="a"></title> 

encloses the title of an "analytic" ("a") work (a journal chapter, an article, etc. — something that is part of a larger, clearly defined entity). Titles marked us as level="a" will appear within quotation marks in the interface.

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Tagging in Omeka

We have used the semantic markup in TEI-XML as our basis for tagging each item on Omeka.

In the case of dates, we have used only years as tags.

With respect to addresses, we have used only street names (not house/building numbers).

We have included as tags the values for Subject and Type that are found in the Dublin Core metadata for that item.

We tag references to cities in the format Atlanta GA, with two-letter state abbreviation and no comma (the comma is the delimiter for entering tags into the system). When we have a reference to a city, we tag also the state separately. We do so even if the state is not explicitly stated. In other words, when the text reads "Atlanta, Georgia," or simply "Atlanta," we add the tags Atlanta GA and Georgia. We handle references to foreign cities in the same fashion. A reference to "Puerto Cabello" would result in the tags Puerto Cabello Nicaragua and Nicaragua.

We standardize names of people when creating tags. For instance, when the text reads "Rosamond," we tag the item with Rosamond Johnson. We do not include Dr., Mr., or other titles when tagging names, except when a first name is not known (Mr. Scott) and in the case of Mrs. when followed by the husband's name (Mrs. W.H. Baldwin) in situations in which the woman's own name has not been determined.

We have not tagged the name Viola Muse, as such a tag could be understood to logically apply to all of the documents, though her name does not explicitly appear in all.

We regularize the names of publications, organizations, and other entities in a similar fashion to how we handle the names of people. When the text reads "Century," we tag The Century.

We tag the titles of books, works of art, and other named pieces of cultural production.

For the items in the collection Selections from Manuscript of The Florida Negro, we have only added tags on Omeka for aspects of the text that we understand to be possible points of connection to Muse's notes and narratives.